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Linear Modulus of Subsoil Reaction

The modulus of subsoil reaction at a depth z is given by equation:

where:

d

-

pile diameter [m]

l

-

length of pile [m]

k

-

soil parameter (modulus) according to Bowles [MN/m3]

r

-

reduced width of pile [m], which is given by equation:

where:

d

-

pile diameter [m]

β

-

angle of dispersion - is input with respect to the angle of internal friction in the range of φ/4 ÷ φ

Representative range of values of lateral modulus k [MN/m3] according to Bowles:

dense sandy gravel

220 - 400

medium dense gravel

155 - 300

medium-graded sand

110 - 280

fine sand

80 - 200

stiff clay

60 - 220

saturated stiff clay

30 - 110

plastic clay

40 - 140

saturated plastic clay

10 - 80

soft clay

2 - 40

Literature:

Bowles, J. E.: Foundations Analysis and Design. 5th edition, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1997, ISBN 0-07-118844-4, chapter 16-15.2, s. 941 (table 16-4).

Pochman, R., Simek, J.: Pilotove zaklady - Komentar k CSN 73 1002. 1st edition, Prague, Vydavatelstvi norem, 1989, 80 p.