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GEO5

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Nails

For each nail the following bearing capacities are either computed or input:

Rf

-

nail head strength

Rt

-

nail strength against breaking

Tp

-

pull-out nail bearing capacity

Strength characteristics of a nail represent the basic parameters to compute the total bearing capacity of a nail.

The nail strength against breaking follows from:

where:

Rt

-

strength against breaking

ds

-

nail diameter

fy

-

strength of nail material

The pull-out nail bearing capacity is calculated by one of the following ways:

1. calculate from skin friction:

where:

Tp

-

pull-out nail bearing capacity [kN/m]

d

-

hole diameter

gs

-

ultimate bond strength, given either as parameter of the nail or as soil parameter.

2. calculate from effective stress

where:

where:

Tp

-

pull-out nail bearing capacity [kN/m]

d

-

hole diameter

σz

-

vertical geostatic stress

φ

-

effective angle of internal friction of soil

c

-

effective cohesion of soil

3. calculate according to HA 68/94

where:

Tp

-

pull-out nail bearing capacity [kN/m]

d

-

hole diameter

σn

-

average radial effective stress

φ

-

effective angle of internal friction of soil

c

-

effective cohesion of soil

Average radial effective stress σn is calculated by following formula:

where:

σz

-

vertical geostatic stress

where:

Nail head strength value to be input. If the nail head is not fixed, then the strength value equals zero.